Holistic school pedagogy and values: Finnish teachers’ and students’ perspectives
The purpose of the study was to identify the components of holistic school pedagogy as identified by a sample of Finnish secondary school teachers and students from two schools. Holistic pedagogy concerns the development of the whole student and acknowledges the cognitive, social, moral, emotional and spiritual dimensions of education. The data were gathered in spring 2008 and include 19 interviews of Finnish secondary school teachers of different subjects and 37 interviews of their students. The teachers and students came from two schools that both emphasize mathematics in their curricula. Analysis of the teachers’ and students’ interviews revealed three different components in holistic school pedagogy. These components were values and worldviews,field-invariant edagogical components (which are important regardless of the content or the subject) and field-dependent pedagogical components (subject- or context-specific issues, such as pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics or the type of school). Holistic school pedagogy also emphasized the importance of the whole school community for the best pedagogical practices in schools.